And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem: (1 Kings 14:25)
Known in Egyptian history as Sheshonk I. He was the founder of Egypt’s Twenty-second Dynasty. He made his famous raid against Judah in the fifth year of Rehoboam. This record is remarkably confirmed by the celebrated inscription at Karnak, enumerating the conquests of Sheshonk and listing cities captured on that campaign. Among the places that can be identified are many within the borders of Israel, chiefly in the plain of Esdraelon, such as Taanach, Megiddo, Beth-shan, Shunem, and others. Socoh and Arad are the only well-known towns in Judah whose names have been read. Some have thought that at the time of this attack, the aforenamed cities in Israel had been captured and were being held by Rehoboam, with the result that Jeroboam invited his former protector to effect a rescue. It is more probable that Sheshonk had certain grievances against Jeroboam, who may not have fulfilled promises made before he became king over Israel. The fragment of a victory stele found in the excavation of Megiddo indicates that Sheshonk dealt with that city as conquered and not liberated.